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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

1.СТАТЬИ
1.1.Основы ввода-вывода Microsoft SQL Server. Часть 2 (продолжение)
2.ССЫЛКИ НА СТАТЬИ
2.1.Статьи на русском языке
2.2.Англоязычные статьи
3.ФОРУМ SQL.RU
3.1.Самые популярные темы недели
3.2.Вопросы остались без ответа
 

 

СТАТЬИ

Основы ввода-вывода Microsoft SQL Server. Часть 2 (продолжение)

По материалам статьи Bob Dorr: Microsoft SQL Server I/O Basics. Chapter 2

Видимость контуров и разреженных файлов

Размеры контуров и разреженных файлов проще контролировать, если Вы имеете представление о некоторых ключевых ограничениях их видимости.
Вторичные потоки файлов часто не видны для команд типа DIR. Это может создавать трудности при попытке определения числа копирований при записи, произошедших во время онлайновых операций DBCC CHECK*. Однако, существует несколько утилит третьих фирм, которые могут использоваться для получения информации о размере и о контурах файла.
Аналогичным образом обстоит дело и с определением размера разреженных файлов, который показывают команды типа 'DIR', и который у них равен полному размеру файла до установленной метки конца файла, а не реально занимаемому физическому месту на диске. Проводник Windows показывает логический размер как "Size", а физический размер файла как "Size on Disk".
Когда SQL Server пишет в разреженный файл базы данных, он может заполучить место, кратное размеру экстента базы данных 64 Кбайт (8 страниц * 8КБ каждая = 64КБ). SQL Server 2005 отслеживает какие сегменты разреженного файла ещё не были распределены. Он не только копирует страницу во время операции копирования при записи, но и следующие семь страниц (целый экстент), заполняя их маркером отсутствия данных. На системном уровне это уменьшает фрагментацию, поскольку операции проводятся с наиболее распространённым размером кластера файловой системы. Кроме того, это позволяет ускорить последующие запросы на копирование при записи для любых из незаполненных семи страниц, поскольку физическое место и разметка файловой системы уже были для них подготовлены. Также, это предоставляет возможность SQL Server использовать информацию о распределении на уровне файл для определения того, какие экстенты в разреженном файле были уже физически распределены. Заполненные метками пустых данных образы страниц могут использоваться для определения того, какие из включенных в распределенные регионы страницы были скопированы из базы данных источника.

Чтение из моментального снимка базы данных

Когда поступает запрос хранящихся в моментальном снимке данных, SQL Server 2005 осуществляет чтение данных из файла снимка и из соответствующего первичного файла базы данных. Для этого используются создаваемые в оперативной памяти разреженные битовые маски распределения базы данных и метки образов пустых страниц, с помощью которых SQL Server может быстро определять фактическое место нахождения страниц данных, которые затребованы запросом.
Например, во время исполнения запроса SQL Server может воспользоваться преимуществами большого запроса на чтение, считывая по восемь или более страниц данных в одном запросе на чтение, как это принято в упреждающем чтении. Давайте посмотрим это на примере.
Операция упреждающего чтения в базе данных источнике, для одного участка данных, охватит одним чтением сразу 64КБ, получив сразу восемь непрерывных страниц. Однако, если третья и шестая страницы были изменены и скопированы (копированием при записи) в снимок базы данных, это приведёт к разбиению операции чтения. В нашем примере потребуется пять отдельных запросов на чтение:

  • Страницы 1 и 2 могут читаться из базы

  • Страница 3 из снимка

  • Страницы 4 и 5 из базы

  • Страница 6 из снимка

  • Страницы 7 и 8 из базы

SQL Server всегда пытается оптимизировать запросы физического доступа к данным, но для запросов к снимкам базы данных, вероятно, придется использовать больше запросов ввода-вывода чем для идентичных запросов к самой базе данных.

ПРЕДУПРЕЖДЕНИЕ: Если Вы используете снимки базы данных SQL Server или онлайновые операции DBCC CHECK*, чтобы исключить возможность повреждения снимка, применяете имеющиеся заплатки к операционной системе. Возможные ошибки описаны в статье: Error message when you run a DBCC check command in SQL Server 2005: "8909 16 1 Table error: Object ID 0, index ID -1, partition ID 0, alloc unit ID 0 (type unknown)"

Быстрая инициализация файла

Современные операционные системы, включая Windows XP и Windows Server 2003, умею инициализировать файлы существенно быстрее своих предшественников, поскольку при использовании программного интерфейса SetFileValidData это происходит практически мгновенно. Этот интерфейс предоставляет возможность SQL Server получить физическое дисковое пространство без физического его обнуления, что и приводит к существенному ускорению подобных операций, выполняемых SQL Server. Все версии SQL Server используют структуры распределения базы данных, которые позволяют находить пригодные для использования страницы базы данных. После распределения, новая страница данных форматируется и записывается на долговременный носитель.
SQL Server 2000 создавал и расширял файлы журнала и данных, размечая новый участок нулевыми значениями. Если у экземпляра SQL Server 2005 неправильно установлены права запускающей службу учетной записи, он будет вести себя при создании и расширении файлов так же, как и SQL Server 2000. Алгоритм, используемый SQL Server, более агрессивен, чем инициализация нулями в NTFS (DeviceIoControl, FSCTL_SET_ZERO_DATA); он имеет более совершенный механизм блокировки файла в NTFS, и позволяет осуществлять параллельный доступ к нескольким разделам файла. Инициализация нулями ограничивает физические возможности ввода-вывода и может выполняться очень долго.
SQL Server 2005 использует мгновенную инициализацию файла только применительно к файлам данных. Мгновенная инициализация файла подразумевает отсутствие разметки нулями на этапе создания или приращения файла данных. Это означает, что SQL Server 2005 может создать очень большие файлы данных практически мгновенно.
К мгновенной инициализации файла в SQL Server 2005 применимы следующие правила:

  • Операционная и файловая системы должны поддержать мгновенную инициализацию файла.

  • Учетная запись для запуска SQL Server должна обладать правом SE_MANAGE_VOLUME_NAME. Эта привилегия позволяет использовать SetFileValidData.

  • Это должен быть файл данных от базы данных SQL Server. Файлы журналов регистрации транзакций SQL Server не могут использовать мгновенную инициализацию файла.

  • Если включён флаг трассировки -T1806, поведение SQL Server 2005 по инициализации файлов становиться таким же, как и у SQL Server 2000.

SetFileValidData действительно очень быстро распределяет физическое дисковое пространство. Высокоуровневые разрешения могут дать доступ к данным, который уже существует на физическом диске, но они будут доступны только для внутренних подсистем SQL Server, и во время операции чтения. Поскольку SQL Server знает, какие страницы были распределены, эти данные не будут показываться пользователю или администратору.
Чтобы гарантировать целостность журнала транзакций, SQL Server должен при инициализации обнулить файлы журнала транзакций. Однако, для файлов данных, формат которых соответствует страницам данных SQL Server, подобных проблем не возникает, поскольку они распределены как уже существующие данные.

Обратите внимание: Для того, что бы гарантировать получение физического места для файла данных во время его создания или увеличения, используйте флаг трассировки -T1806.

Флаг трассировки -T1806 обеспечивает обратную совместимость, приводя к обнулению во время инициализации файла базы данных, и запрещает использование мгновенной инициализации файла. К такому же результату приводит изъятие прав SE_MANAGE_VOLUME_NAME. Для получения более подробной информации относительно права SE_MANAGE_VOLUME_NAME, см. статью "Инициализация файлов базы данных" в SQL Server 2005 Books Online.

Обратите внимание: Инициализация файла нулями не обеспечивает полной защиты от чтения предыдущих данных. Для обеспечения такой защиты, физический носитель должны отвечать требованиям стандартов Министерства Обороны США (Department Of Defense - DOD), которые представляют семь разных способов записи, одним из которых является инициализация файла нулями.
Для получения более подробной информации о защите ранее записанной информации, см. статью "Upgrading your PC? Protect and purge your personal files".
Для подробной информации о DoD 5015.2-STD, см. документ "Design Criteria Standard for Electronic Records Management Software Applications".

ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ СЛЕДУЕТ

[В начало]

ССЫЛКИ НА СТАТЬИ

Статьи на русском языке

"Враги" восстановления данных
Symantec
По данным исследования, проведенного по заказу Symantec в конце 2006 года среди 500 профессионалов ИТ в Северной Америке, среди причин отказов в процедурах восстановления данных на удаленной площадке чаще всего называют сбой носителя (53%), порчу резервной копии (50%), ее отсутствие (39%), потерю носителя (22%). Кроме того, около половины опрошенных указывают на необходимость присутствия на удаленной площадке технического специалиста для выполнения процедуры восстановления. Актуальными проблемами считаются сокращение времени восстановления данных и уменьшение трудозатрат. 75% опрошенных рассматривают защиту данных в удаленном офисе, как очень важную или чрезвычайно важную процедуру. 30% сталкивались со случаями потери резервной копии, еще 12% - со случаями ее кражи, а около трети респондентов не шифруют данные на ленте. Цель исследование состояла в идентификации основных проблем, с которыми организациям приходится сталкиваться при хранении данных вне ЦОД.

Пакет обновления 2 (SP2) для 32-разрядных ОС Windows Server 2003 (x86)
Александр Гладченко
9 апреля 2007г. стал доступен для скачивания Пакет обновления 2 (SP2) для 32-разрядных ОС Windows Server 2003 (x86), устанавливаемый на русскую версию операционной системы.

Выполнение преобразований системы счисления (исходники)
Ицик Бен Ган
В сетевых конференциях по SQL Server часто встречается вопрос о том, как выполняется преобразование системы. То есть пользователь сохраняет значения как строковые величины, содержащие числа в данной системе и хочет конвертировать их в другую систему счисления. Как правило, пользователю нужно хранить значения в недесятичной системе, когда приложение работает с недесятичными величинами (например, серийные номера, представленные по базе 36, двоичные битовые образы, хранимые в двоичной системе). Десятичная система использует цифры от 0 до 9. N-размерная система, меньше чем 10, использует цифры от 0 до n - 1. Система больше чем 10 использует числа от 0 до 9 плюс алфавитные символы, начинающиеся с A. Например, шестнадцатеричная система использует цифры 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 и символы от A до F, где A представляет собой десятичное значение 10, B представляет 11, и так далее. Однако SQL Server не поддерживает работу cо значениями, выраженными в недесятичной системе. Таким образом, возникают трудности в связи с необходимостью хранения таких значений и выполнения арифметических манипуляций, вроде вычисления результата выражения 1101 + 1010 в двоичной системе.

Худшие методы (MS SQL Server) - сортировка по номерам столбцов
Andy Warren
Худшие методы - это то, что простирается от незначительного раздражения до того, что сводит вас с ума. Настоящий метод лежит на более умеренной стороне (в зависимости от того, как прошла ваша рабочая неделя). Попадали ли вы когда-нибудь на подобный запрос?

Исследование кода, запросы SQL и многое другое
Scott Mitchell
Проанализируйте и выполните графическое исследование архитектуры приложения. Большие приложения для платформы Microsoft .NET Framework могут включать сотни или тысячи классов, организованных в индивидуальные сборки, которые составляют различные слои в архитектуре приложений. В то время как большинство разработчиков работают исключительно с конкретными разделами архитектуры, старшие разработчики и системные архитекторы обычно несут ответственность за принятие решений по коду и конструированию, влияющих на различные компоненты архитектуры и их взаимосвязь. Чтобы принимать эти решения по изменению кодов и архитектуре, очень важно, чтобы старшие разработчики и системные архитекторы имели цельное понимание структуры и взаимозависимости компонентов архитектуры. Обычно разработчики прибегают к подбору с помощью исходного кода, что часто занимает много времени и может привести к ошибкам.

9 параллельных структур данных и алгоритмов для многократного использования
Joe Duffy
В данной заметке в меньшей степени обсуждаются механизмы платформы CLR (common language runtime), а в основном идет речь о способах эффективного использования имеющихся в вашем распоряжении средств. Безусловно, выбор правильных структур данных и алгоритмов является решением, которое программисту приходится принимать наиболее часто, но это важное решение. От правильности этого выбора зависит успех или неудача, в большинстве случаев им определяется высокая или, наоборот, низкая производительность. Исходя из того, что параллельное программирование часто используется для повышения производительности, и, как правило, является более трудной задачей, чем последовательное, сделанный выбор оказывает даже еще более серьезное влияние на успешное решение поставленной задачи.

RAID 5 или 6?
osp.ru
Технология RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) позволяет задавать различные уровни защиты данных в зависимости от конкретных требований приложений. Наиболее широко используются RAID 0, 1, 5 и 10. Технология RAID 5 позволяет получить высокую отказоустойчивость, дает возможность позволяет перестроить данные на отказавшем диске без потери доступа к информации. Технология RAID 6 (с двойной четностью) обеспечивает более высокий уровень отказоустойчивости, защищая данные даже при отказе двух дисков. Однако возросшая емкость дисков увеличивает время перестроения данных при отказе, что повышает вероятность отказа второго диска, пока процесс не закончен. RAID 6 исключает этот риск, однако требует дополнительных вычислений, что снижает производительность записи. Как показывают тесты, производительность контроллера при RAID 6 падает почти на 30% по сравнению с RAID 5, в то время как на операциях чтения она примерно такая же. Быстродействие контроллеров разных производителей заметно отличается.

Упрощение обслуживания баз данных с помощью секционированных таблиц
Noah Gomez
В прошлом администраторам баз данных, управляющим таблицами с миллионами строк данных, приходилось создавать множественные таблицы. Произведя секционирование таблиц, администратору приходилось привязывать эти таблицы друг к другу во время выполнения многих запросов. Привязывание секций друг к другу требовало создания секционированного представления или хранимой процедуры-оболочки, определявшей местонахождение данных и выполнявшей другую хранимую процедуру, которая работала только с секциями, нужными для возвращения набора данных.

Изменена схема выпуска кумулятивных наборов заплат SQL Server
Александр Гладченко
По-видимому, то огромное количество проблем, которые возникали у потребителей после установки последних сервисных пакетов и заплаток, подвигло команду выпуска SQL Server объявить на прошлой неделе о пересмотре концепции их разработки, тестирования и поставки. Это особенно радует после "чудес" с SP2 и чехарды исправлений для неудачных исправлений :) Как сообщает в блоге Microsoft SQL Server Release Services сотрудник этого подразделения Keith Fang, схема выпуска заплаток и пакетов будет теперь привязана к срокам, а не по мере готовности (как это было уже принято для операционных систем и офисных приложений), периодичность выхода кумулятивных пакетов заплаток будет установлена в два месяца. В рамках новой модели Incremental Servicing Model, заплатки будут "выдавать на гора" не по надобности, а к сроку, т.е. процесс разработки и тестирования будет более предсказуем.

19 апреля 2007г. стал доступен кумулятивный пакет заплаток (build 3161) для SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2
Александр Гладченко
Инструкция по получению пакета и список исправляемых им багов представлены в статье базы знаний: Cumulative update package (build 3161) for SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2 is available

Средства бизнес-аналитики в Microsoft SQL Server 2005
Андрей Колесов
Не будем спорить о рейтингах поставщиков решений для бизнес-аналитики (пусть этим занимаются Gartner&Co), но вряд ли могут быть сомнения в том, что Microsoft входит в число лидеров этого рынка. Более того, хотя корпорация вошла в ведущую группу позднее других участников, можно уверенно констатировать, что роль ее неизменно возрастает. Это естественным образом вытекает из общего позиционирования Microsoft на мировом софтверном рынке и усиления ее влияния во всех его сегментах.

Как правильно подобрать оборудование и понять, сколько оно будет стоить?
Алексей Еременко
Как правильно рассчитать нагрузку системы? Как правильно подобрать оборудование и понять, сколько оно будет стоить?

Записки об использовании службы поддержки или "разница в менталитете"
Алексей Еременко
Разница в менталитете действительно существует. В России мы не используем службу поддержки, как могли бы. Впрочем, это касается не только поддержки продуктов, к врачу бежим только когда зуб разболелся и терпеть нет сил. Профилактика не наш удел.

[В начало]

Англоязычные статьи

Excel 2007 Document: Designing SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services Cubes for Excel 2007 PivotTables
Allan Folting
This document outlines how to improve the end-user experience by optimizing the cube design for Microsoft Office Excel 2007 PivotTable dynamic views. Microsoft® Office Excel® 2007 takes advantage of most of the features in Microsoft SQL Server™ 2005 Analysis Services. To take full advantage of these features, it is important to consider the end-user experience in Office Excel 2007 when you are designing cubes. This document outlines how to make the end-user experience great by optimizing the cube design for Office Excel 2007 PivotTable® dynamic views. Note that the features described in this document are applicable not only to SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services cubes; Excel exposes the features described with any OLAP (online analytical processing) server that supports the required functionality.

PivotTables 9: Great support for SQL Server Analysis Services
David Gainer
Today, I'll start a series of articles on the improvements we've made to PivotTables connected to OLAP (OnLine Analytical Processing) data sources, specifically Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services models (in addition to its relational database product, SQL Server includes a feature named Analysis Services which provides business intelligence and data mining capabilities). Excel has worked with SQL Server Analysis Services for several versions now, but we have put a lot of time and effort into Excel 12 in order to make it a great front end to SQL Server Analysis Services, especially Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services was recently released as part of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and introduced many new, powerful features for analyzing data … for more information on Analysis Services, please take a look here and here).

PivotTables X: Server formatting, translations, member properties
David Gainer
In this post I'll walk you through three Analysis Services features that we now support in Excel PivotTables - server formatting, translations, and member properties. One thing to keep in mind as you read is that since all these are defined in Analysis Services (i.e. on a server), every PivotTable created that pulls data from Analysis Services will get the benefit of these features without the PivotTable author or user needing to do anything.

PivotTables 11: Key Performance Indicators, Actions, and Named Sets
David Gainer
Today, I will cover three additional features of Analysis Services that Excel 12 PivotTables supprt - Key Performance Indicators, Actions, and Named Sets.

PivotTables 12: Filtering OLAP data, and some "persistence" improvements
David Gainer
In a previous post I covered the new sorting and filtering capabilities of Excel 12 PivotTables. Those features are available for any PivotTable, regardless of the data source. There are a few additional filtering options available for PivotTables connected to Analysis Services, so I want to review those today. I also wanted to make a short point about some "formatting persistence" work we have done in Excel 12.

The Excel 12 Blog Rides Again, or "CUBE Functions Part 1"
David Gainer
OK, I am freshly back from a fascinating couple weeks of visiting a number of customers (thanks to all you that spent time with us over the last few weeks), so it is time to get back to talking about Excel 12 features.

CUBE Functions 2: A Few Examples
David Gainer
Last time, I explained the seven new CUBE functions that are available in Excel 12 to fetch data from Analysis Services cubes. With the theory that a picture is worth a thousand words, I would like to walk through a few examples that illustrate how these functions can be used to produce reports based on OLAP data (data that comes from SQL Server Analysis Services).

SQL Server Analysis Services support - the list
David Gainer
I have had a number of emails in the last week asking for a list of the SQL Server Analysis Services features that we support, asking for a list of the SQL Server Analysis Services features that are new in their 2005 release, etc., so here is a list that hopefully answers folks' questions. Specifically, here are the major features available in SQL Server Analysis Services that Excel 12 supports. "New in AS2005" means the some or all of the feature is new to SQL Server Analysis Services 2005. "OM only" means you need to use Excel's OM.

CUBE Functions 3: Formula AutoComplete revisited
David Gainer
Previously when discussing CUBE functions, I showed a couple of examples of reports based on OLAP data that could be built using CUBE functions. Now I'd like to explain how we've done something very special with Formula AutoComplete to make it easy to navigate the OLAP namespace while authoring CUBE functions.

CUBE Functions 4: Deconstructing the PivotTable
David Gainer
Actually, before I talk about data connections, I want to cover one other way that users can author OLAP formulas ... users can create a PivotTable bound to an OLAP cube and then use the Field List to quickly add all the fields that they care about to thier PivotTable. Then, with a single command, they can convert that PivotTable to a set of formulas, where each formula uses one of the new CUBE functions. Fast and easy.

Managing External Database Connections in Excel 12
David Gainer
Now that we have covered OLAP formulas, I would like to explain a set of work we did in the area of "connection management" in Excel 12 workbooks. Specifically, I want to show you three new things that you can do in a workbook that is connected to external data (whether that is an Access database, and Oracle database, and Analysis Services cube, etc.). In Excel 12, you can

Data Mining In Excel
David Gainer
One of the technologies available in SQL Server Analysis Services is data mining. You can read lots more about it here.

The OLAP Survey 6
OLAP Report
The sixth edition of The OLAP Survey is now available for purchase. The OLAP Survey 6 provides a thoroughly independent and unbiased account of the market's verdict on vendors, products, and corporate project success rates based on the responses of 1679 users worldwide. Quite simply, it is the definitive source of customer intelligence on the rapidly growing On-line Analytic Processing (OLAP) market.

How do you like to learn? *or* SQL Server Agent Proxy Accounts
Paul A. Mestemaker II
One of my favorite parts of my job as a Program Manager is evangelizing our products. I love teaching people how to be more effective by introducing them to new features or tying many existing features together in an end-to-end scenario.

SQLIOSim - Outstanding I/O Warnings
psssql
I have encountered some questions pertaining to the SQLIOSim outstanding IO warnings and I am posting some details.

Conditional Where Clause
Decipherinfosys
This is a very frequent occurence: We have seen clients using conditional case statements (isnull(), coalesce(), mathematical operators etc.). Remember that the moment you start applying functions on the indexed columns, you are rendering the index useless - because the values stored in the index are not stored after the application of that function. In Oracle, one can use the FBI (Function Based Index - search this site for FBI and you will get our other blog posts on the topic), in SQL Server and DB2 LUW, one can play with and get around this by using a computed/generated column and indexing it. The one time that a conditional case statement in the where clause might be fine is if there is other selective filter criteria so that the optimizer can formulate the plan based on those selective indexes and then use this conditional case statement to further narrow down the result-set.

Accessing and Updating Data in ASP.NET 2.0: Programmatically Accessing Data using the Data Source Controls
Scott Mitchell
Working with data in ASP.NET version 1.x required writing data access code. This involved establishing a connection to the database, specifying the SQL command, and then executing the command. ASP.NET 2.0's data source controls greatly simplifies this process by encapsulating the data access pattern within a Web control construct. As such, data can be retrieved or modified and bound to a Web control without writing a single line of code. We explored the essentials of declarative data binding earlier in this article series in the Data Source Control Basics and Accessing Database Data articles.

Reading and Writing Files in SQL Server using T-SQL
Phil Factor
SQL Server has never been short of ways to read from and write to files and it is always better to use the standard techniques provided by SQL Server where possible. However, most of them are really designed for reading and writing tabular data and aren't always trouble-free when used with large strings or relatively unstructured data.

RegCreateKeyEX() error
Kathi Kellenberger
I just began migrating SQL Servers (2000) to Windows 2003 from Windows 2000 a few months ago. In the past, I never had to add the start up account to the local administrators group. Now that we are moving to Windows 2003, I had to start adding the start up account to the local administrators to avoid getting the "RegCreateKeyEx() returned error 5,'Access is denied'" error when modifying settings.

Default schema
Kathi Kellenberger
Sadly, I haven't had much experience yet with SQL Server 2005 except for Reporting Services and SSIS. The majority of my databases are for third-party applications that are not yet certified for SQL Server 2005 or require an upgrade so I'll be running 2000 for quite awhile at work.

Inserting missing rows
Kathi Kellenberger
I can think of three ways to insert just the missing rows from one table or query into another table.

SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER
Kathi Kellenberger
We recently received a script for a modified stored proc from a vendor. My colleague ran the script on the test database, but the application owner wasn't ready to test the new functionality. My colleague knew she had to revert back to the old proc and scripted out the proc from production using SQL Enterprise Manager. Strangely, the script she created produced this error when she tried to run it:

Phone books and Indexes
Kathi Kellenberger
On Wednesday I gave a presentation to the St. Louis Visual Basic.Net user group. I really enjoy speaking to this group, they never look like they are falling asleep and we always have a lively discussion. I spoke about indexes, using estimated query plans to troubleshoot queries and the procedure cache.

Using IIF in Reporting Services
Kathi Kellenberger
I found an interesting use for the IIF function in a Reporting Services report this week. I needed to provide a report of users and the schedule date for migrating them to our new workstation image or the date that they were migrated. The people viewing the report are mostly interested in the people who have not been migrated yet. So, I created a grouping level based on a migration flag. For the users who have been migrated, we don't care about the scheduled date anymore. For the users who haven't migrated, well, they don't have a migrated date. I like to add a row in the group header right above the detail line for the labels. So, instead of hard-coding "Schedule Date" and "Migration Date", I used the IIF function to display the correct heading. I also used the IIF function to choose which report field to use for the date. I use the IIF function a lot for conditional formatting. For example, alternating background colors for the detail section. I'm sure there are lots of uses I haven't thought of yet. To use IIF, you supply an expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE, then a value if the expression is TRUE and one if it is FALSE. Here is an example: =IIF(Fields!Completed.Value = TRUE,"Migration Date","Schedule Date")

SQL Server on VM
Rick Heiges
Recently, someone asked me a question about consolidating SQL Server to VMWare. Here is my response.

Sic Semper NULL
Michael Coles
The great debate over NULLs will probably never end. Should we use them in our databases? What meaning do they have? These are all valid questions. In this article SQL Server expert Michael Coles takes a look at the problems that are inherent in eliminating NULLs completely from a database.

32-bit/64-bit aliases
Tara Kizer
We don't use the default port for SQL Server for security reasons, so we usually have to explicitly tell the client how to connect to SQL Server by creating an alias on the client machine.

Script Multiple Procs With Create And Drop Statements In SQL Server 2005
Denis
In SQL Server 2005 Management studio you can not script out multiple procedures with a create and drop statement

Benchmarking SQL Server 2005 Covering Indexes
Dinesh Asanka
A covering index is a form of a non-clustered composite index, which includes all of the columns referenced in the SELECT, JOIN, and WHERE clauses of a query. Because of this, the index contains the data the query is looking for and SQL Server does not have to look up the actual data in the table, reducing logical and/or physical I/O, and boosting performance.

SQL: how to convert time from GMT to EST
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: In my Database, all date and time are stored in GMT, however, when it is displayed, I need them in EST. How can this be done with Daylight saving time taken into account as well?

need help switching a boolean value
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: what i want to acheieve is the following, in my table i have an "isactive" field, i want to create a sql line something like

SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2 (SP2) Re-release and post fixes explained
Bob Ward
The dust has now settled after the release of SP2 for SQL Server 2005 so I thought I would take some time to explain a few details about the re-release of Service Pack 2 and the fixes that have been posted by Microsoft since this re-release. There is much to digest in this post so at the end of the post I've created a summary to help guide you on the next steps to take:

Column Dependencies
Tech Crumbs
Often it happens, that we want to play with a column value of a table. Not knowing the ramification of the column value, we have to resort to the back breaking manual process of finding the dependency on the column. Using the management studio, get the list of stored procedures depended on the table. Go thru each stored procedure and check which stored procedure does what with the column in question.

Consuming Event Notifications from CLR
Remus Rusanu
A question was asked on the newsgroups: how can a C# program be notified when the schema of a table was modified (i.e. a column was added)? The short answer is to use Event Notifications, see http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms189453.aspx

Does Anyone Use ~ (Bitwise NOT)?
Denis
I have Used ¦ (Bitwise OR) and & (Bitwise AND) but I have never used ~ (Bitwise NOT). Lets' see what it does

T-SQL: dmy, mdy, oh my! dateformat confusion
James Green
This script came out of a discussion here at the office around a product that isn't flexible or location aware in how it writes datetime values into the database. This is also not paying attention to storing the date data in UTC or localtime or any of those concerns, just the semantics of storing whatever the date value happens to be. What are your experiences with this? Comments as always most welcome :-) Example script follows:

SQL Server Hotfix Release Revised
Keith Fang
In response to customer feedback, SQL Server team has revised the mechanism to deliver hotfixes on reported bugs with a new model called Incremental Servicing Model (ISM). The objective is to deliver high quality fixes within an acceptable amount of time and on a predictable schedule.

Microsoft Changes How It Issues SQL Server Fixes
Alex Woodie
Microsoft last week introduced a new way for SQL Server users to get critical updates for their databases when problems arise. Called the Incremental Servicing Model, Microsoft says it's designed to ensure that high quality fixes are delivered within an acceptable amount of time and on a predictable schedule.

SQL Server cumulative hotfix notifications now available
Chris Talbot
A new process for Microsoft SQL Server users should make it easier for some companies to schedule the review and implementation of hotfixes that Microsoft releases on a periodic basis.

Convert *= / =* to outer joins (ANSI compliant)
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: I'm working on converting *= and =* to 'left outer join' and 'right outer join'. I noticed the difference in behavior between the =* and the phrase "right outer join" and between *= and 'left outer join'. The result set is different. Here is an example:

Entity Change Tracking in LINQ to SQL and the Entity Framework, Round 2
OakLeaf
Entity change tracking is required to detect and resolve conflicts that can occur when more than one user updates an instance of a particular entity, such as a SalesOrder or MedicalRecord object, concurrently. Thus the common term for this problem, which occurs only with multi-user systems, is concurrency conflict.

On Metadata-Driven Analysis Management Objects (Part 1)
Adrian Downes
Part 1: Background: Over the last few months we have been hard at work on a metadata-driven ETL pipeline for an 880Gb SQL Server 2005 BI solution. Powered by SSIS, metadata has allowed us to create a single SSIS package for a generic task, and re-use it many times based entirely on the information we supply to it.

NULL checks
Decipherinfosys
Another one of those small mistakes. A NULL != NULL in SQL language. One needs to use the IS NULL and/or the IS NOT NULL checks in order to check for NULL values. And in the SQL Server world, do not change the behavior using ANSI_NULLS setting. It is un-desirable and leads to confusion. Here is what I mean by that (SQL Server Syntax):

Using SMO with PowerShell to create a database
Allen White
Last month I presented a session on using PowerShell with SQL Server. One of the complaints I've heard as I've discussed the benefits of using SMO to build management solutions was that DBA's aren't programmers, and don't want to write programs. (Personally, I think script programming is no different from a skills perspective than VB or C# programming, but that's just my opinion.)

CASE Function in SQL Server 2005 - part III
Muthusamy Anantha Kumar
In Part I and Part II of this series, we have illustrated how to use simple case expressions in queries. In this installment, I am going to illustrate how to use case functions in clauses such as group by.

What use is a Development DBA?
Doug Burns
I'm sure that there are many Developers who would respond to that question immediately, with something like:

CASE function in SQL Server 2005 - part II
Muthusamy Anantha Kumar
Part I of this series illustrated how to use simple case functions in queries. In Part II of the series, I am going to discuss how to use case functions in different types of scenarios.

Views and Horizontal Partitioning
Jambu Krishnamurthy
Jambu Krishnamurthy brings us a look at the various options you have available with views and some of the techniques you can use to build a better database by incorporating them in your design.

SP2 Maintenance Plan bugs fixed
Paul Randal
From the tools team here in Redmond: We recently posted updates to address an issue in two SP2 Maintenance Plan tasks. The KB article describes the symptoms as follows:

Unpivot Comma Delimited Column
Peter Ward
I recently came across a scenario where the description in a column was being stored in a comma delimited column as illustrated by the Products table below. This table needed to be unpivoted so that the columns where rotated into column values. The following example illustrates how this can be achieved using an auxiliary numbers table.

Hotfixes vs. Service Packs: Blurring the Lines
Brian Moran
Last week, my press contacts at Microsoft told me about the company's new Incremental Servicing Model for SQL Server, a new process for customers to receive scheduled SQL Server hotfix updates that is scheduled to launch April 16. The name and the brief description sure sounded intriguing. But, try as I might, I haven't been able to get much in the way of real information about what this new initiative really means to customers. Honestly, that's a bit weird. Typically, Microsoft releases a ton (a very precise journalism term that means a lot) of information about new customer-facing initiatives on its Web sites and blogs. And within a few days, dozens--if not hundreds--of talking heads just like me are sharing their incredibly insightful opinions on the topic. However, at about 9:30 p.m. Eastern time on Tuesday, April 10, when I Googled "Incremental Servicing Model," I got just three hits. I hate to rely too liberally on the "background" information that my Microsoft press contacts provide me, but since there's not a lot of meat for me to chew on my own, here's what Microsoft told me. The Incremental Servicing Model is a process that Microsoft developed in response to customer feedback. Presumably, when customers know that they are going to get an update, they can more effectively plan for (and minimize) downtime. . . .

Month Year Date Comparison
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: am running into a slight issue with a month year comparison. I wrote q SP thats user-input driven. User selects a Start Month, Start Year and an End Month and End Year. The database that houses the information has month and year columns.

Stored procedure returns duplicates
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: I am trying to create a report in Crystal Reports (v 8.5). I have a stored procedure to pull data from two databases and parameters. There are multiple one-to-many relationships and the stored procedure returns duplicates; e.g., one schedule may have multiple resources, supplies, and/or orders (and one order may have multiple foods). Is there a way to stop the duplication?

Update of SQL Server Database Publishing Toolkit for Web Hosting
ScottGu
A few months ago I posted about the new SQL Server Database Publishing Hosting Toolkit built and published by the SQL Server team. You can read about what it offers and how to use it in these previous two blog posts of mine:

Averages, ratios, division by zero and NON_EMPTY_BEHAVIOR
Mosha Pasumansky
How to get averages and other ratio based MDX calculations demonstrate great performance ? I thought I covered this subject in great depth before, but I probably wasn't concise enough. Last week I was asked to help with performance to very big and important customer (who shall remain unnamed). When I arrived on site, I found the project staff to be very knowledgeable about Analysis Services and MDX. The model was designed following all the best practices, they have studied the Performance Guide and implemented all the relevant changes. Yet they couldn't get a very simple MDX calculation of average to perform well in medium size Excel reports. They also studied all of my earlier blog on this subject ("How to check if cell is empty", "Budget Variance and NEB" and "Performance of IIF" blogs), yet it wasn't working for them. We have found a solution which satisfied both the business needs and delivered great performance, so I thought I should share it, since it is such a common scenario.

Best practices for server ADOMD.NET stored procedures
Mosha Pasumansky
In this article we will discuss some of the best practices around writing efficient Analysis Services stored procedures using server ADOMD.NET. These days there is plenty of information about writing efficient MDX - in books, whitepapers, blogs, forums etc. Just recently Microsoft released two documents - Performance Guide and Design Best Practices (and I have seen another one, still in the works, which goes deeper into MDX internals than anything else previously published). But there is no similar information or resources about how to write stored procedures, which are the essential extensibility mechanism in Analysis Services. There is Analysis Services Stored Procedures open source project on CodePlex, which features plenty of source code for different stored procedures, but it is not easy for someone looking at it to extract best practices out of the code. This article's goal is to collect some of such best practices into single concise source.

On Metadata-Driven Analysis Management Objects (Part 2)
Adrian Downes
Part 2: Code to Create and Process the Partition. In order to take advantage of AMO we naturally need to make use of the classes available in Microsoft.AnalysisServices.dll. Once we have defined the variables (discussed in Part 1) within the SSIS package, and wired them up to the single-row output from our metadata store using an Execute SQL Task, we can reliably retrieve and use them within the package Script Task. Our script task uses three files:

Tools of the Trade: Part II - The Repro
Justin Trobec
In this series of posts, we're going to take a look at some of the tools we at Microsoft Developer Support -- Database commonly use, how to use them, and the types of issues they can be used to resolve.

Tools of the Trade: Part III - Kerberos (I)
Adam Saxton
In this series of posts, we're going to take a look at some of the tools we at Microsoft Developer Support -- Database commonly use, how to use them, and the types of issues they can be used to resolve.

Roll your own Transfer SQL Server Objects task
Matt Masson
Awhile back we went through a lot of customer feedback logged through the Connect site concerning the Transfer SQL Server Objects task. Some of these turned out to be bugs, but a lot of the reported issues stemmed from usability problems with the task itself. There's actually not that much to the task on the SSIS end - it uses the SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) API to do the bulk of the work. Anyone familiar with the SMO Transfer object will notice the similarities in the task's UI. We end up exposing the majority of the Transfer object's members as properties, which leads to most of the reported problems with the task; it's complicated, and options sometimes conflict with each other.

64-bit references within an SSIS Script Component
Michael Entin
I was forwarded a question about SSIS Script Component on 64-bit, I think the answer may benefit others as well:

COM references within an SSIS Script Component
Michael Entin
The SSIS Script Task and Script Component editors don't provide functionality (available in full VS) to add a reference to unmanaged COM components. Can this be done at all?

Better Alternatives to a FULL OUTER JOIN
Jeff Smith
As many of you know, I am pretty much completely against ever using RIGHT OUTER JOINs, since they make your SQL code less readable and are easily rewritten as LEFT OUTER JOINs. In addition, I have yet to find a situation where a FULL OUTER JOIN makes sense or is necessary -- I have found that in just about every case other techniques work better. (Feel free to suggest some FULL OUTER JOIN situations in the comments and we can discuss)

ProcessAdd Examples
Greg Galloway
The concept of incremental processing is well documented by T.K. Anand's fabulous whitepaper on processing (which you should probably digest before continuing), but there is a severe lack of full working example XMLA commands. The purpose of this post is to provide full working examples of ProcessAdd against Adventure Works.

ProcessAdd on Large Dimensions
Greg Galloway
ProcessFull, ProcessUpdate, and ProcessAdd are the three processing options for keeping data fresh in dimensions in Analysis Services 2005. This post takes a look at these options as they relate to processing very large dimensions.

SQL Server 2005 Merge Replication Subscriber unexpectedly deleting during data Synchronisation
Steve Wright
Within my current project I have been using SQL Server 2005 merge replication. While I have been testing some issues have been raised by our testers and I would like to write about another one of these in particular.

Master Data Management (MDM) Hub Architecture
Roger Wolter
The second in a series on Master Data Management (MDM), this paper covers the architectural issues in building an MDM hub: a database with the software to manage the master data that is stored in the database and keep it synchronized with the transactional systems that use the master data. (17 printed pages)

SQL Server 2005 Integration Services - Maintenance Plan Tasks - Part 47
Marcin Policht
In the previous installment of our series dedicated to SQL Server 2005 Integration Services, we introduced the concept of Maintenance Plans and presented a brief overview of three methods that can be used for their implementation. We also described in more detail the most straightforward of them, which is initiated from Object Explorer of SQL Server Management Studio and configured through a series of consecutive, wizard-driven pages. In addition, we mentioned that a variety of features (along with representing them graphical interface options) have changed with the advent of SQL Server 2005 Service Pack 2. We will point out these changes as we continue our presentation, in order to bring your attention to some of the more relevant improvements (for a complete list of new features in SQL Server 2005 SP2, refer to the "What's New in SQL Server 2005 SP2" article of SQL Server 2005 Books Online posted on the MSDN Web site). On the other hand, remember that the initial release of the service pack contained a number of software bugs, which had a negative impact on maintenance plan functionality. To ensure that these issues will not impact your environment, you should verify that you have installed the corrected version (which was made available by Microsoft on March 5 2007) as well as apply the instructions outlined in Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 933508.

CASE Function in SQL Server 2005 - part IV
Muthusamy Anantha Kumar
In Part I, part II and part III of this article series, we saw how to use simple case expressions in queries. In this installment, I illustrate how to use case functions in clauses like 'group by'.

Black Belt Administration: Performance Dashboard for Microsoft SQL Server, Part II
William Pearson
In Performance Dashboard for Microsoft SQL Server, Part I, we introduced the Performance Dashboard for Microsoft SQL Server ("Performance Dashboard Reports"). We noted that this "report pack," made available on the heels of the release of Service Pack 2 for MSSQL Server 2005 will, perhaps, be the most warmly received Reporting Services report set of its type to date. We noted that the Performance Dashboard Reports are a set of report files designed to be run from within SQL Server Management Studio. Targeted toward MSSQL Server Database Administrators and other users; the objective of the report set is to act as both a health monitoring and diagnostic tool.

SQL Server 2005 Integration Services - Maintenance Plan Tasks - Part 46
Marcin Policht
Continuing our coverage of Control Flow tasks in SQL Server 2005 Integration Services, we will now focus on several tasks, whose shared purpose is to provide the ability to perform standard database maintenance procedures. You can find these tasks grouped together within Business Intelligence Development Studio, in a section of the Toolbox labeled "Maintenance Plan Tasks." It is also possible to access them (and use them to create less complex packages) via the "New Maintenance Plan..." option, from the context sensitive menu of the Maintenance Plan subfolder in the Management folder of Object Explorer in SQL Server Management Studio. (The number of options available from this interface is limited, preventing you from taking advantage of many other SSIS features, such as, Data Flow or tasks that belong to other than Maintenance Plan categories). The third approach to creating new packages that contain maintenance tasks (which, however, precludes editing existing ones) relies on Maintenance Plan Wizard, which is invoked from the context sensitive menu of the Maintenance Plans subfolder (right below the "New Maintenance Plan..." option).

T-SQL in SSIS: The power and the weaknesses
Serdar Yegulalp
SQL Server Integration Services, or SSIS, provides a number of different mechanisms to create and pull data from a data source. One is the ExecuteSQL task, which lets you use a T-SQL statement, much as you might pass a bit of T-SQL from a front-end application to SQL Server on the backend. The T-SQL in question can be a full statement or a reference to an existing stored procedure.

Maintain DTS packages in SQL Server 2005
Joseph Toscano
Let's assume you are supporting a customer that wants to upgrade from SQL Server 2000 to SQL Server 2005. There are many reasons to justify this decision as outlined in the following excellent white paper: Why upgrade to SQL Server 2005.

Alert-based Transaction Log Backups - Automate your database Maintenance Part 2
Allen White
Having a well thought-out, and tested, backup strategy is important to your disaster recovery plan. Your regular database backups and transaction log backups will allow you to recover from system failure or user error. However, one thing that even the best strategy cannot anticipate is that sudden flurry of transaction activity that fills up the transaction log rapidly. If you've disallowed 'auto-grow' on your transaction log you could find yourself with no space left and unhappy users. If, alternatively, you've allowed 'auto-grow', you may find that you're taking performance hits as the growth occurs, and the available disk space on your server rapidly diminishes. However, there is a good way to avoid this problem.

Partitioned Tables in SQL Server 2005
Nigel Rivett
Partitioned tables are a new feature available in SQL Server version 2005, aimed mainly at improving the performance of large database systems. The feature is only available for enterprise and developer edition. For other editions you can get a similar functionality with a partitioned view.

Adventures With Service Broker
Johan Bijnens
Service Broker is one of those new SQL Server 2005 features that doesn't get much press, but is extremely interesting from a software architect perspective. The much talked about service oriented architecture (SOA) can make use of Service Broker and new author Johan Bijnens brings us a look at this subsystem.

SQL Server XML- The Crib Sheet
Robyn Page
This is written with the modest ambition of providing a brief overview of XML as it now exists in SQL Server, and the reasons for its presence. It is designed to supplement articles such as Beginning SQL Server 2005 XML Programming.

Performance Impact of Frequent Logins (Actually Performance Impact of Frequently Calling SqlConnection.Open() with Connection Reset)
Linchi Shea
Recently, a question came up regarding whether frequent logins from .NET applications--as observed with the prefmon counter SQLServer:General Statistics\Logins/sec--would have a significant performance impact. This is obvious an empirical question that is best answered with test data. In particular, I want to explore the extreme case beyond the kind of login frequency one may see in any real application.

How to avoid using shrink in SQL Server 2005?
Paul Randal
Late night blog post to round out spring-break vacation... A number of customers I've spoken to in the last few weeks have been making use of database or file shrink in situations where they don't really need to. There are few recurring scenarios I've seen:

Example corrupt database to play with and some backup/restore things to try
Paul Randal
I've been asked several times over the last few weeks for an example corrupt database to play with, and for testing logic built around DBCC CHECKDB.

How can you tell if an index is being used?
Paul Randal
Whenever I'm discussing index maintenance, and specifically fragmentation, I always make a point of saying 'Make sure the index is being used before doing anything about fragmentation'.

Can you mix-n-match backup devices?
Paul Randal - MSFT
I was asked this question yesterday and didn't know the answer so thought it would be good for a quick post. Can you use devices from your main and mirrored backup media sets together to perform a restore?

How having too many filegroups can affect recovery time
Paul Randal
I was on a conference-call on Friday with a customer and we were discussing their plan to have thousands of filegroups, with a table in each, as a way to improve recovery times in the event of a disaster (the tables are unrelated to each other so this solution isn't unreasonable).

Interview With Itzik Ben-Gan Author Of Inside Microsoft SQL Server 2005: T-SQL Querying
Denis
If you are a SQL developer then you know who Itzik Ben-Gan is. If for some strange reason you don't know then listen up. Itzik is a SQL Server MVP, he writes a monthly column for SQL Server Magazine and he is also a principal mentor and founder of Solid Quality Learning. You can also find him in the SQL Server programming public newsgroups. If you browse the MSDN site you will find several articles written by Itzik.

Dynamic management function query to view index usage
Louis Davidson
Last week, I presented a query to view I/O pressure, and (to me) more usefully, look at it in a slice of time, like when doing a performance test.

SQL Server: How to audit rollback-ed data in a trigger?
Mladen Prajdic
The most popular method of auditing data is with an AFTER DELETE, INSERT, UPDATE trigger. But what happens if you have a Rollback statement in your trigger if some condition is met? You rollback your transaction but that also empties the inserted and deleted pseudo tables and all audit insert done in the trigger. You get to the Catch 22 situation. So how to solve this? It's acctually very simple. Use Table Variables. Table variables live outside of the transaction and so their contents aren't affected by Commit or Rollback of the transaction.

"Global variables" in SQL Server
Mladen Prajdic
There's no such thing as a global variable in SQL Server. You can't just do:

Avoiding Calculations and Functions in WHERE Clauses
Glenn Berry
Here is an example of how a simple query change can make a pretty dramatic change in cost and performance. Generally speaking, you want to avoid doing calculations or calling functions in the WHERE clause of your queries.

Check for Objects Created Without SET Options Enabled
Umachandar Jayachandran
Here's the solution to the April Reader Challenge. (To read the full Challenge, "Change the Status of Table Items," go to InstantDoc ID 95324.)

Licensing Answers
Michael Otey
Some of the most exciting developments in IT technology today are in processors and virtualization. Processor technology has been advancing faster than ever before. The advent of 64-bit x64 technology has been followed quickly by dual-core CPUs, quadcore CPUs, and integrated virtualization capabilities at the CPU level. Virtualization has also been rapidly evolving. Not so long ago, all of the major virtualization products were high-priced offerings from Microsoft and VMware. Now, both of Microsoft's virtualization products, Virtual PC 2007 and Virtual Server 2005 R2, are free.

Generate synchronization scripts in SQL Server with TableDiff
Tim Chapman
TableDiff is a console executable that allows you to compare data between SQL Server tables. Plus, since it is packaged with SQL Server, you don't need to buy additional tools when you want to examine lookup tables in different database environments.

Mixing the bill of materials formula with SQL Server
Arthur Fuller
Question: What do you get when you combine SQL Server, bill of materials, and cooking? Answer: A useful tip for figuring out what recipes you can make based on the ingredients you have on hand.

Stored procedure returns duplicates
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: I am trying to create a report in Crystal Reports (v 8.5). I have a stored procedure to pull data from two databases and parameters. There are multiple one-to-many relationships and the stored procedure returns duplicates; e.g., one schedule may have multiple resources, supplies, and/or orders (and one order may have multiple foods). Is there a way to stop the duplication?

Outline number sorting
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: Is there a way to in SQL to sort outline numbers to retain the "natural order" state?

dynamically change column name when displaying
Joe Celko
SQL Apprentice Question: have a table, after i query the table for displaying, several column names will be changed based on the condition, but I don't want change the acutal table column names, it will only be changed when displaying. I tried CTE and virtual table with column aliases, but they doesn't work, they require you know the column name first, i CANNOT pass @columnName to them.

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